Welcome to my permaculture "explorer's notebook," so to speak. Some of these entries may be quite raw, as they may literally be my notes from watching a YouTube video or a thought captured as it was dancing through my head. Other posts might be more elaborate as I take an idea and explore it in more detail or transcribe or polish a lengthy observation from my field book. Either way, I hope to capture some permaculture ideas and methods here as a recollection for myself and a resource for others. Thank you for stopping by. - Karla

Wednesday, May 28, 2014

Project Management for Permaculture Practioners - Part 2 - Project Life Cycle

<< Part 1 - Intro | Next >>

"A project life cycle is the series of phases that a project passes through from its initiation to its closure." - Project Management Book of Knowledge (PMBoK) (Fifth Ed.)

There are generally four main phases for any given project:
  • Starting
  • Organizing & Preparing
  • Doing the Work
  • Closing 
The curve should be smoother in the graphic below; however, I'm not so good with the drawing tool, and it's late.  Still, one can clearly see that starting and finishing are cheap, and "doing work" is expensive and labor intensive.

Based on a table in the PMBoK 5th Ed.

















Let's see how this might play out with our two examples.

Example 1 - Creation of a Design
  • In the beginning, there's just an idea; a twinkle in the eye.  Maybe a phone call, a meeting with the land owners, a walk around the property.  Not much time.  Not too many person hours logged.  Lots of thinking, not so much doing.  You might do this for free.  You might not even log these hours as "billable."
  • Then a period of organizing and prepping.  Not a whole lot of people involved in numbers here, but your time spent on the project starts going up as you find maps, research climate, return to the property one or more times to observe & take notes & photos, think about what elements you might use in your design, choose (and maybe purchase) what tools you will use - pens, pencils, rulers, paper, fancy software, modeling clay, etc.  Costs and time are rising.  If you aren't logging these as "billable hours," you might not really be profitable, or you may end up with an overall pay rate of coins per hour.
  • And then, the time approaches to actually create the design.  A draft? or two? Double checking details.  Re-reading notes.  Putting pen to paper or mouse to mouse pad - the work is getting done.  Maybe you are inspired or driven, but for sure there is a deadline and you are working like crazy.  Confer with client - show them drafts, discuss the element, create the final Thing. This is the meat and potatoes of Design Time.  And then, suddenly, you're done.  Well, maybe there's still a few small touches to add, but, yes, your done.
  • Winding down time.  Meet with the client one last time. Put the finishing touches.  Write the invoice.  Deliver the design documents.  Get paid.  Write a Thank You note.  Take a break.
Example 2 - Implementing a Design
  • Meet the client. Walk the property. Review the client's design.  Not much time.  Not too many person hours logged.  Lots of thinking, not so much doing.  You might do this for free.  You might not even log these hours as "billable."
  • Then a period of organizing and prepping. On a project that includes the addition of many elements - swales and their trees, chicken tractors, roof water catchment, zone one garden, etc. - there will be an extra long organizing and prepping.  Do items have time dependencies or sequences that have to be followed.  When will money be available? Is it the busy season for heavy equipment? When is a good time to plant trees? Is August too late to put in a garden - or has winter just ended, and the weather looks lovely?  What could happen that could throw our plans off?  What if there is sand under the ground where we are planning the pong? Redoing the schedule and what has to happen to make each element appear is cheap and easy on paper.  Use a lot of paper.
  • And the work goes on.  And in large projects, this is where unexpected things create the horrid thing called "going over budget."  The equipment operator is legitimately ill, and you scramble to find another one a your backhoe is being delivered.  Equipment rental company is going to charge you, even if the equipment just sits.  Swale placement perfect, right there - except, bedrock, right there. But, move the swale to a different contour line, and it's beautiful! And, saved some money because found some great materials for a chicken tractor at the local swap meet for way under budget.  Life is crazy.  The money is draining.  People are working, working, working - and the land is transforming, and what could be is becoming.
  • In a large project, "shutting down" may also come in phases.  Equipment operator finishes up and gets paid.  Chicken tractor team finishes up.  One by one, the elements are completed.  And then one day all the accounts are settled, including your own, and it's time to let the land stewards begin to really get to know and nurture the land for the long haul.
Super simplified, of course.  And this is just the "doing" cycle.  There is also a "risk" cycle.  And the "cost of change."  We'll touch on that another day... or night.

Thanks for hanging in there.  Hope this is helpful.  Feedback appreciated!


Karla Upton is a PMP® Certified Project Manager. Certification number 2310531.

Monday, May 26, 2014

Project Management for Permaculture Practitioners - Part 1 - Introduction


"A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result." - Project Management Book of Knowledge (PMBoK) (Fifth Ed.)

As designers, we might not always be involved in the actual implementation of a design or parts of a design.  As practitioners on our own property or as consultants for someone else' property, a solid understanding of the Project Life Cycle of a property could be as useful as understanding its Forest Succession Cycle or its Water Life Cycle.  This series will attempt to familiarize you with the Project Life Cycle as expressed in by the Project Management Institute® (PMI.org).  While we won't be able to cover everything that is presented in the nearly 800 page Project Management Book of Knowledge, I hope that this overview will help you to manage your projects and time-scale niches and opportunities.  In addition, while I usually apply these principles to business projects, I will frame them here with a permaculture viewpoint.

For the purpose of this series, we will use two examples for our projects:
  • The creation of a design
  • The implementation of a design as a project
The second example can be clearly seen as a project; however, the creation of the design can be a project in and of itself.  This would be especially so for the creation of a large and/or very detailed design.


Projects, Programs, and Portfolios
Projects
As stated above, a project is temporary, and it produces something - a unique something. In our first example, the design itself is the product: a drawing, some printouts, a computer file, some lists and other documentation.  In our second example, the product would be a sustainable ecosystem.  The first project might take hours, days, weeks, depending on the size and complexity of the design.  The second might take decades before it is fully realized, and while the ecosystem my exist in perpetuity, the project to create it will have been completed at some point in time.

Programs
But what happens if you have a bunch of related projects?  These become known as a program. In a program, the projects are related, and thought is put into the managing of the projects together, as a whole to take advantage of their relationships to each other.

Example 1: Perhaps the client does not have time or resources to pay for a whole property design.  In such a program, you might have a project to do a sector analysis and zone 1, and another project to design zones 2 & 3, and a third project to design zones 4 & 5.  One could manage these as totally independent projects; however, if managed together, one might incorporate observations of all of the zones while working on the zone 1 design.  With these additional observations in hand, one might be able to plan things for zone 1 that can later take advantage of elements that are already in place in one of the other zones.  These various projects might take place sequentially, or they may happen in parallel or they may overlap - depending on budget, time constraints, and what makes sense to capitalize on various opportunities.

Example 2 : Your client has a lovely and complex design in hand, and is chomping at the bit to get started; however, time and budget means that everything cannot happen at once.  In this case, the various elements that need to be implemented might each become a project in the program to create the ecosystem.  A dam, a few swales, a fire break along a fence line, roof water catchment, zone 1 herb spiral, zone 2 orchards, zone 3 animal rotations, zone 4 food forest, and etc.  Sometimes it seems that the list is never ending.  With program management, however, one can sequence the various projects to take advantage of the season, or that use the same equipment, or the purchase of something in bulk that can be purchased at a cheaper price, and that can be used for one of the projects and stored on site for a future one.

Example 2 A : Your client has multiple properties - you might be able to run them as one program.  One day you are completing the "swale project" on one property, and the next day you are working on the "swale project" for the other.  This may provide an advantage in costs for the equipment, having a lower cost per day, and may provide an advantage for being able to work with the same operator on both projects, especially if you plan to build during the peak season.

Portfolios
Your portfolio would include both the individual projects that you may be working on, and any programs and program projects that you are working on. The items in your portfolio might only be related by their strategic ability to forward your business.

Example: If you are an "earth works specialist," you might only take on projects where you are designing and implementing dams, swales, and perhaps food forests, and you might not take on designing much of anything for zone 1.

Example: If you are a designer who prefers working in an urban and suburban environment, your portfolio might include projects for homeowners, schools, restaurants, and parks; however, you might not often design properties over one acre.

In both cases, you have made a strategic decision on what types of projects and portfolios that you wish to manage.

Summary
I hope to help you improve your permaculture and design projects by helping you to understand the Project Management Life Cycle and some of their key elements.  For Part 1, the key points to remember are that:
  • Projects are tactical - they have a distinct start and stop, and they create something
  • Programs are where tactics and strategy intersect - where a group of projects are managed together for a strategic advantage
  • Portfolios are strategic - where projects and programs are selected and managed for the strategic benefit of the business
<<Part 1 | Part 2 >>

Karla Upton is a PMP® Certified Project Manager. Certification number 2310531.

Sunday, May 25, 2014

As if I didn't have enough to do...

 
I have also signed up for the PermaEthos Founders' PDC.  As they say, "Sleep is highly overrated." Oh, and I am also continuing to read Ben Falk's book.

Saturday, May 24, 2014

Compost C:N Ratios

Did I mention I have been both super busy at work and also taking Geoff Lawton's Online PDC? So many notes, so little time.  One gem from the PDC, however,  is a list of the relative amounts of Carbon that a compost element had compared to its Nitrogen content.  Good to know, while keeping in mind that the goal is to build a compost heap with about 25 to 30 parts Carbon to 1 part Nitrogen.
  • 500 C:1 N : Sawdust
  •   25 C:1 N : Green weeds & grass clippings
  •   20 C:1 N : Horse Manure
  •   18 C:1 N : Cow Manure
  •   12 C:1 N : Chicken Manure
  •   10 C:1 N : Pigeon (Squab) Manure
  •     8 C:1 N : Rabbit Manure
  •     7 C:1 N : Fish (the dead fish or fish parts themselves)
  •     1 C:1 N : Human Urine
Looks like mixing sawdust with pretty much anything will help balance out that C:N ratio!

Saturday, May 10, 2014

Dreaming of planting a food forest...

I would dearly love to have 10 or 20 acres; however, the reality (and it is not a bad reality!) is that we will only be able to afford 4 - 6 acres.  I was thinking that I might have to really work to have space for a full blown food forest.  University of Georgia (USA) to the rescue with a chart of how many trees one can plant per acre.  True, this is not how many from a permaculture perspective, but it does give one some ideas.  For example, full sized apple trees at maturity 30 feet apart = 48 per acre.  Dwarf apples planted 15 feet apart - 194.  I've seen how many apples a 3 year old dwarf apple tree can set.  Even if only 10% of the total tree count was set to dwarf apples, that is way more than a single family could possibly eat.  Even if they are fattening hogs and chickens on the gleanings.  So, feeling much better now.  Food forest on one acre - bring it on!

One idea - zone3
Can inter-plant many other trees between the immature fruit/nut trees that will be harvested as the primary trees need the space.  For example, if I were to plant 3 pecan trees, maybe I would really plant 6 and cut down or coppice the three less vigorous ones.  Also, can run chicken tractors and can grow garden vegetables and flowers around each tree.  As many nitrogen fixing trees as there are "permanent residents."  Also, maybe I would put the trees that will eventually be much larger towards the North so they won't later shade the dwarf trees?  Not so sure about placement, yet, but getting ideas.
  • 1/4 acre planted to full sized fruit trees that won't really be entering into their production years for 7-10 years - 12 at 30 foot spacing
  • 1/4 acre planted to full sized nut trees - 12 at 30 foot spacing
  • 1/4 acre planted to full sized sugar maple trees - 12 at 30 foot spacing
  • 1/4 acre planted to dwarf/semi dwarf fruit trees -  48 at 15 foot spacing
And then, of course, there are the many, many types of berries and flowers and herbs and other yummies I could plant amongst the trees.  Most importantly, I plan to plant a picnic bench, a hammock, and a small tree house in there, too!

Thursday, May 1, 2014

PDC Keeping Me Busy!

Autumn Leaves

Between my Day Job, Tornado Warnings, and taking Geoff Lawton's Online PDC, I've been, well, rather busy!

My copy of Permaculture: A Designers' Manual by Bill Mollison came last week.  Packed full of info, but dry as a college science course reference book - which it actually is!  So glad to have Geoff Lawton teaching the class.  So far as I can see, he is following the manual very closely.  And, the Q&A videos where he answers students questions (each and every single one of them!) is almost worth the cost of the course itself!

Well, even though this is barely a post, I did add some links.  Thanks for stopping by!